When a project includes content from unknown sources, we need to worry about content security.

The possibility to extend Markdown with raw HTML^*^ poses no threat as long as we have full control of the content. But as soon as we include external content, we have to consider bad intentions. The following suggestions should help to thwart them or make them at least more difficult.

Don’t allow raw HTML

There is one reason for Goldmark to discard all raw HTML in Markdown by default: The whole purpose of Markdown is to get rid of coding HTML directly.

The security concern is also obvious: Raw HTML allows to inject all kinds of malicious code into a website – to call external Javascript routines in a <script>-tag is the easiest one.


Hugo offers two ways to extend Markdown more securely. By injecting HTML attributes or configurable HTML snippets with shortcodes. They are provided by theme developers or project maintainers whom you need to trust.

It’s still possible to inject malicious code via HTML attributes. Hugo discards all event attributes to make it harder. Other more complicated attempts remain possible. But they are easier to spot than attacks hidden in HTML. Correct attributes are constrained to simple syntax – deviations are immediately suspicious.

Perplex offers many attributes to achieve different styles and encourages to use them. One way to contain the remaining vulnerability by attribute attacks would be to allow only trusted editors to apply them in the last step of your content creation.

Maximum security

When you need the tightest security Hugo can offer for loads of external and unsupervised content, you need to let go of attributes and disable them completely. You can still provide carefully crafted shortcodes, to achieve the same results.

Headings (title)
The attributes for these two element groups can be disabled in the goldmark.parser.attribute section of the configuration file markup.yaml.
Fenced code blocks
Besides a few special highlighting attributes Hugo also allows to add custom attributes to fenced code blocks. To disable this possibility, you need to disable their automatic highlighting in the section goldmark.highlight of markup.yaml. To use Hugo’s internal highlighting you can alternatively use the shortcode {{< highlight >}}, which offers the same options as code fences with only a slightly different syntax.